Content Requirements and Best Practices
Here are requirements and best practices to keep in mind as you create and enter content for OSU Extension. Most of these apply to the Extension website and elsewhere, such as OSU WordPress blogs and college or department websites.
Planning and Evaluating Content
Before you enter content, you should evaluate whether that content is appropriate to put online. All content should:
- Have a purpose or goal that aligns with your team’s strategy
- Have a defined audience and be appropriate for that audience
- Align with the digital strategy’s requirements and guiding principles
- Structured: entered in a format that makes sense and is consistent
- Atomic: separated into the smallest sensible pieces
- Customer-focused: uses language and concepts that are familiar to visitors
- Mobile-friendly: deliverable to a variety of screen sizes without degradation
- Data-informed: creation and development based on available data
- Relevant: information is up-to-date and meets visitors’ needs
- Right people doing right things: written, reviewed, entered, and maintained by the appropriate people and groups
Not duplicate content that already exists online
- Before entering content into the Extension website, please use the Site Content Overview page to make sure it doesn’t already exist.
- When entering content, you can see a list of existing content with similar titles in the right-hand section of the screen:
- If the content you want to enter already exists, contact the person who uploaded it and ask them to make the necessary edits. See Working with Other Content Authors. If the content is on another website, consider linking to it instead.
Writing for the Web
Many Extension faculty and staff are skilled in academic research writing or in writing program materials. This type of content often needs to be altered to accommodate the way that people use information online.
Here are some tips for writing effective web content:
- Keep it as short as possible. Remove words, sentences, paragraphs, and pages that aren’t necessary.
- Separate content into chunks using lists, headings, and paragraph breaks.
- Don’t over-emphasize. When everything on a page is emphasized, nothing stands out. Avoid overuse of bold, italics, and large or colored fonts. The best way to bring attention to something is to have less other stuff on the page to compete with it (see the first tip).
- Use good writing style as you would with any other piece of writing.
- Use proper spelling and grammar.
- Try to use active verbs.
- Begin a piece with something interesting and lead with important points.
- Make titles descriptive and compelling.
- Limit acronyms and jargon.
- Use clear language by writing simple, straightforward descriptions whenever possible, especially when translation is not an option. This also makes content more usable for youth, people with low-literacy, English language learners, and people with certain learning or intellectual disabilities. Hemingway App is a good tool to check the readability of your content. The Plain Language guide also provides other tips.
- Set up a review process so that content stays up to date and is accurate. (For some content teams, this may include peer review.)
- Follow OSU and Extension brand guidelines. The OSU Brand Guide and the Extension Style Guide have information about messaging and tone for written pieces.
Here is a quick summary of the differences between writing for print media and writing for the web:
|Topic||Print version||Web version|
|Access||“Print-friendly PDF” button on the website||Remember, our audience is literally reading this on a phone.|
|Reading level||Write to 10th-to 12th-grade reading level||Write to 8th-to 12th-grade reading level|
|Audience segment||Write to clearly identified section of audience: producers, stewards, advocates, learners||Write to clearly identified section of audience: producers and learners|
|Length||Flexible length||50% shorter. For longer articles, include an overview or summary.|
|Tables||Complex tables OK||Simpler tables with accessible HTML|
|Design standards||Meets print design standards (High resolution, lots of images, data graphics). Widows, line breaks, and alignment matter. Good visual hierarchy.||Meets web design standards (lower resolution with alt text, screen readable). Teaser text to draw in readers. Tagging/keywords added.|
|Structure||More flexible narrative format, but use short sentences.||Inverted pyramid style preferable. Lead with the most important points, or make important points stand out with pull quotes or separate lines.|
|Headlines||Compelling headlines||Headlines front-load keywords. They’re straightforward and compelling, not cutesy. Shorter is better.|
|Sections||Break up text with photos, graphics and subheads||Break content into short, readable chunks. Liberal use of subheads, bullet points and boldface.|
|Voice and tone||Voice and tone: depends on complexity of topic. Avoid passive voice.||Voice and tone reflect OSU branding. Welcoming, helpful, conscientious, progressive. Okay to use second person pronouns.|
|References||Include resources and references at the end using AP or Chicago style for citations||Link to other relevant content (but never say “click here”)|
|Acronyms||Acronyms OK. (Chicago Style)||Limit acronyms|
|Sentences||Full sentences required.||Phrases and partial sentences okay.|
|Content||Storytelling and illustrative examples common.||Specific actionable information preferred (unless a story or news content type).|
Based on UX research from Nielson Norman Group.
Diversity and Inclusion
OSU’s Strategic Plan 4.0 places a strong emphasis on promoting diversity and inclusion in education and programs. There are several things to keep in mind to ensure that our web content is inclusive of all the audiences we serve.
Accessibility means that content is available to and used by a diverse variety of visitors. Often, it specifically refers to making a site useable by people with disabilities. However, it can also apply to others, including:
- People using small screens on mobile devices
- English-language learners and automatic translators that may be used by non-English speakers
- People of diverse ages
- Non-human visitors to the site, such as search engine crawlers
As an institution that receives federal funding, we are legally required to make content and services accessible. See OSU’s IT Accessibility Policy. Here are some guidelines to make sure content is accessible:
Use text editor controls for what they were intended. Many assistive technologies depend on text formatting to give structure and meaning to content. Therefore, it’s important to use formatting only when appropriate. For example, don’t create a “fake” heading by just making text bold. On the other hand, don’t use the heading formatting (e.g. Heading 2, Heading 3) just to emphasize text. Headings should reflect the structure of the content.
Don’t put important text in images. People with visual impairments can have trouble reading text that is part of an image. Text in images also cannot be translated by automatic translators or scanned by search engines. Text in images such as event flyers and diagrams should also be typed in another field on the content, such as the description field on an event. If you must put text in an image, also type that text in the image’s alternative (“alt”) text field.
- Use meaningful labels for links. It is important that the text in a link makes sense and describes what the link does. If the link gets broken, you will find it easier to locate the resource again if the link includes the title of the missing page. Assistive technologies often read link text by itself to help speed up browsing. Also, search engine crawlers put more weight on keywords in link text.
- You should never use a “raw” URL. For example, instead of “www.google.com,” use “Google.” See Using the Site for how to create links in text areas.
- The same thing applies to email addresses. Instead of “Contact Jane Doe at firstname.lastname@example.org,” just put “Contact Jane Doe.”
- We also encourage you to link to a person’s profile instead of an email address if possible (type their name in the link field and select from the list that shows up). This has several benefits:
- Makes it less likely for spam bots to find and abuse the email address.
- Profile links go to an online form which results in less errors than clicking on an email link.
- Profiles also give several methods of getting in touch with someone for visitors that prefer one method over the others.
- Avoid links that contain the phrase “Click here.” This is not descriptive enough and is inaccurate for people who are not using a mouse.
- Avoid text in all caps. This makes text difficult to pronounce for screen readers (they may mistake it for an acronym). It is also more difficult to read for people with dyslexia.
- Use tables only for tabular data. Tables are complex structures that are difficult for assistive technologies to understand. Only use them when necessary—for example, when presenting tabular data. Don’t use tables for formatting text in columns. Two-column sections on pages can accomplish this.
Here are some more University resources to help you create accessible electronic content:
- Accessible Electronic Documents (PDFs, Microsoft Word Documents, etc.)
- Accessible Web Pages
- OSU’s Web and Mobile Services offers “Accessibility Basics for the Web” trainings that content authors should consider attending.
While accessibility makes sure that all people can access content, there are other things we need to do to make sure content is appropriate and inclusive once the reader has found it.
- Content creation: When creating content, recognize different perspectives and include topics that are relevant to diverse communities.
- Free access: If you are publishing content in academic journals, consider publications that do not require a subscription to read. That way everyone can have access when you link to it from the website. OSU’s Open Access policy passed by the Faculty Senate in 2013 retains copyright to the post-peer review, pre-typeset versions of faculty articles so that they can be made available in open access repositories like ScholarsArchive@OSU and on the Extension website. This also includes articles where OSU is only one of the authors.
- Content translation: Provide materials if needed to non-English speaking populations, and tag content with the language it is written in. In the next phase of development, EESC will investigate the possibility of implementing an automatic translation service for the website.
- Images: Make sure the images you take and use reflect the diversity of your audience. Also be mindful that your images aren’t inadvertently sending negative messages or reinforcing stereotypes.
- Pronouns: Be respectful of your subjects’ and visitors’ pronouns. You can specify your own pronouns on your user profile. See Adding and Editing Content: User Profile.
For resources, trainings, and answers to questions related to diversity and inclusion, visit the Outreach & Engagement Diversity, Equity and Inclusion website.
Dimensions and File Size
On the Extension website, there are three kinds of images that you might upload.
- Full-width images: images that span the entire width of the page. These include “hero images” at the top of pages and backgrounds behind text on subpages. There are several things to keep in mind when you select these images in order for them to be effective.
- Use images that are horizontally oriented (called “landscape”).
- Use large enough image dimensions. They should be at least 2000px wide. Hero images should be about 325px tall, and text background images should be tall enough to be a backdrop to all the text you enter.
- When creating text with background sections, remember that for some people text on busy backgrounds is difficult to read. Text in these sections have a semi-transparent white background, but it is still a good idea to select images that are light and not too busy.
- Content images: images that appear with educational content such as articles. These can be any orientation, but should be at least 400px wide. When a visitor clicks on one of these, a full-sized version will show.
- Other images: images added manually to subpages and projects. These can be any size you want. When a visitor clicks on one of these, a full-sized version will show.
If you know how to set the resolution, 300 pixels/inch is preferred. The Extension website automatically attempts to optimize images when you upload them. But it is still important to use as small a file size as possible while maintaining image quality. All image uploads are limited to 10MB.
Where to Get Images
It is extremely important that you only upload images to the Extension website that you have permission to use. This means you cannot use images from Google, another website, or a publication unless you get permission. You must also specify the image credit for any image you upload.
By default, other people adding content on the site are able to reuse images you upload. To prevent this, check the “Don’t allow reuse of this image” box when uploading the image.
Here are some good sources of free legal images to use:
- EESC Photo Archive
- OSU Brand Photos
- Creative Commons Search (Includes Flickr and other sources of images; check licensing status and attribution information.)
If you are using a photo that your office or program took, you must have a completed model release for photos that have people in them. Download the forms in Box.
Captions and Alternative Text
When you upload an image, you can add “alternative text” (alt text) and a caption.
The caption displays below the image with information about the subject of the image. If you plan to reuse the photo in many different situations, then leave out a caption or make it more general.
The alt text is a replacement for the image when the image is not available. This happens, for example, when a person is using assistive technology or has images turned off. It is also visible to search engines that scan the site for relevant content to show in search results.
Alt text is usually only necessary when there is text in the image. In this case you should re-enter that text in the alt text field as it appears in the image. You should also include alt text when the image illustrates something that isn’t explained in the caption or other surrounding text.
Quick Tip: For more details on when and how to craft an alternative text description, see: WebAIM: Alternative Text Guide.
When you have a document, such as a PDF, that you want to add to the Extension website, there are several options.
Option A: Website-Based Content
Website-based content can be read directly on a website. This is opposed to files that someone has to download and open to read. On the Extension website, website-based content includes articles, subpages, and other text content. This type of content has several advantages over uploading documents. It makes content:
- more likely to be found and ranked highly in a search
- easier to use on mobile devices
- easier to use for people who use assistive technology such as screen readers
- easier to change without breaking existing links or leaving old versions available
- automatically remain visually “on brand” if the site design changes in the future
Therefore, we strongly recommend adding materials as web content whenever possible. To do this, copy and paste or type the contents of a document into a text box. Good options are an article or subpage.
There are some situations when a document cannot or should not be added to the site as website-based content. These include:
- forms that people need to fill out (though you may want to consider implementing these in Qualtrics)
- PowerPoint presentations
- documents that contain complex graphics, tables, or diagrams
- documents that need to be private or restricted to a certain group of people
Option B: Box
We highly recommend using OSU Box for files that you will need to change or replace regularly. Box has a very robust versioning system for files. This allows you to easily replace files with new versions without breaking existing links. It is also the only option currently available for files that need to be password-protected.
Here is how you can upload files to Box and use them on the Extension website:
Step 1: Upload File to Box
- Log in to Box with your ONID credentials.
- If needed, create a folder for your content by clicking the “New” button in the top right of the screen and selecting “Folder.” Give the folder a name and click on it to see its contents.
Click the “Upload” button in the top right corner, select “Files,” and select the files you want to upload from your computer.
Replace a File with a New Version
- Hover over the file in the list of files and click the “...” icon to the far right.
- Select “Upload new version.” The new file does NOT need to have the same name as the old file. Existing links will continue to work either way.
Step 2: Get the Link for the File
Hover over the file (or folder*) you want to link to in the list of files and click the “Share” button on the far right.
*If you follow these steps on a folder instead of a file, the link will take visitors to a listing where they can download any file in that folder.
In the window that pops up, click on the blue arrow next to “People in your company” and select “People with the link” instead. The result should look like this:
If you want to protect the file with a password, click the "Link Settings" link in the the popup in #2 above. Check the box next to “Require password” (below), enter the password you want people to use. To provide a direct link to download the file (doesn't take user to Box), check the box next to “Allow Download”.
Click "Copy" to save the URL to your clipboard, then click "Save".
- Visit the OSU Box website OSU Box website for complete documentation.
Step 3: Add a Link to the Extension Site
There are several ways to add a link, depending on the type of content your group can add.
- Create an online resource for the link.
- Create a program resource for the link.
- Create a newsletter issue and select “Link” for the type.
- Add the link to a text box of a subpage, announcement, or article.
This step is also applicable to documents hosted elsewhere, such as on a college site, Dropbox, or Google Drive.
Option C: Upload to the Extension Site
Available Content Types
Documents can be added to the website as any of the following content types.
- Educational Document (content teams)
- Event (anyone)
- Newsletter Issue (anyone)
- Program Resource (program teams)
Removing and Replacing Documents
Files that are attached to a piece of content will be deleted when
- you remove the file from the content and save or
- you delete the content.
Deleted files will no longer be accessible. If you want to maintain a copy of the old file, you must do this yourself beforehand.
When a document is deleted, all links in teasers for the content on the Extension website will update automatically. This includes links that are created when you add page sections such as featured content or program resource lists to subpages. However, if someone manually created a link to it (for example, in a text box on a subpage), that link will break.
Summary Flow Chart
Tags are labels applied to content to help with sorting, filtering, and interpretation. They provide contextual information about the content that various platforms can take advantage of to display or use the content in ways that make sense. For example, a smart home app could use region tags to find information that is applicable to the home’s location. Or, if a website knows that a user is interested in a particular topic, it can feature content tagged with that topic for that user.
In general, when tagging a piece of content, think about how a visitor to the site would want to find the content. Here are some more detailed guidelines for the individual tags you can add to content.
When you tag content with a topic, a few things will happen.
- The content will show up on the topic’s pages.
- The content will show higher in search results when a visitor searches for the topic.
- The content will show when a visitor selects the topic in a page filter.
- The content will appear in a “Related Content” section on pages of other pieces of content tagged with the topic.
Try to limit the topics you tag content with to one or two that are most relevant. For example, if you have a newsletter that has a whole article on tree care then that would be good topic to add. If you just had a brief mention of a tree care event coming up, then do not add it. The event on the website will be tagged for the topic but not the whole newsletter.
You can think of keywords as “subtopics” that are used to further organize content in a topic. When you tag content with a keyword, a few things will happen.
- The content will show higher in search results when a visitor searches for the keyword.
- The content will show when a visitor selects the keyword in a page filter
- The content will show in “Program Tagged Content” page sections for programs it is tagged with.
Keywords are the only tag on the site that requires content authors to type in the tag instead of selecting it. Please follow these guidelines while doing this:
- Reuse existing keywords if possible. As you type in the keyword box, you can select matching keywords that already exist. You will know you are reusing an existing keyword if a number appears next to it (this is the numeric ID of that keyword).
- Keywords need to be separated by a comma.
- Use all-lowercase letters unless the keyword contains a proper noun.
- Try to use nouns whenever possible (instead of adjectives or verbs), for example, “sustainability” instead of “sustainable.”
- Only use one “form” of each keyword. For example, don’t tag a piece of content with both “apple” and “apples.”
- Don’t repeat information in other fields. For example, if you have tagged content with the region “Central Oregon,” you don’t need to add it as a keyword.
- Avoid acronyms.
- Use keywords that could apply to more than one piece of content.
- Each keyword should contain a single idea. For example, instead of “trees and shrubs,” use the separate keywords “trees” and “shrubs.”
The region tag can narrow content down to only what is relevant for someone in a particular geographical area. When you tag content with a region, a few things will happen:
- The content will show up higher when a visitor searches for the region.
- The content will show when a visitor selects the region in a page filter.
The region tag defaults to “Statewide.” You should change this tag (remove “Statewide” and add a different region) only if the content is only applicable to one or more specific regions and not statewide.
The season tag specifies the season (Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter) when the content is relevant. This is used for internal organization and for promotion of seasonally-relevant content. If content is equally-relevant during the entire year, do not select any season.
Extension marketing developed four themes to describe the work we do to stakeholders. If your content fits within one of these themes, specify it with the “marketing theme” tag.
The Program Area tag is used on county focus areas for internal organization. Mark which of the seven Extension program areas that the focus area fits under.
The audience tag is used for internal organization, and the list of available audiences is currently under development. Eventually, it will be used to help personalize the website experience for individual visitors. If the content is not aimed at any of the listed audiences, do not select any.
The language tag specifies what language the content is available in. When you tag content with a language, a few things will happen.
- The content will show higher in search results when a visitor searches for the language.
- The content will show when a visitor selects the language in a page filter.
In the upcoming phase of development for the website, there will be more robust multilingual functionality. In the meantime, we are using language tags for reporting and auditing information. Please only tag content with a language if the content is actually in that language.
Program and County
Tagging a piece of content with a program or county generally makes it appear on the corresponding program or county page. When you do this, please be mindful of whether your content is relevant to visitors to that page.
Case Study: Tags on an Article
The article “Start Planning Early: Things to consider when selling trees from your property” is tagged as follows:
- Topics: Forest Health and Management; Cutting and Selling Trees
- Keywords: logging, timber harvest, clear cut, thinning
- Region: Statewide
- Language: (none)
- Program: Master Woodland Manager
- If the MWM program had a “Program Tagged Content List” section configured, this article would show up there
Case Study: Tags on an Event
The event “4-H Annual Western Region Livestock Education Day” is tagged with a number of counties and local 4-H programs. This is because it is applicable to the entire Western region of the state. It shows up on the pages for each county and program it is tagged with. Note that, because it was added through the Linn County 4-H group, it does not need to be tagged with the Linn County 4-H program to show up on that page.
There are a few things to keep in mind to make sure the content you enter in the site meets legal requirements.
It is very important that you only enter content in the site that we have the rights to or have permission to share or use. This includes text, documents, images (see above), and other media.
If you want to share content that is owned by another organization, you can link to it from our site (for example, as an online resource).
Research in Journals and other Publications
When considering adding content created by Extension faculty/staff that has been published in an external journal or other non-OSU publication, be sure to consider copyright and fair use. Authors may retain their copyright but be limited in their ability to share or distribute the work. Scholars Archive @ OSU has good information about this. Here are some methods to consider for sharing this kind of content.
- You can link to the content if the journal where you submitted it provides it through open access. This is usually explained somewhere in the journal.
- If it’s unclear, then you need to determine whether sharing the content falls under fair use. You could likely provide it to individuals on request for educational purposes, but providing it through a website would not typically be considered fair use.
- You may consider repurposing the information in the content to create a new product that you are allowed to share and that is more appropriate for a web audience.
As an institution that receives federal funding, we are legally required to make content and services accessible. See the Accessibility section above for more information about how to do this. You can also read OSU’s IT Accessibility Policy.
Non-Discrimination and Accessibility Statement
The Equal Opportunity/Accessibility statement is linked to at the bottom of every page on the Extension website. Therefore, it is not required for content that shows on web pages (website-based content). However, files (for example, newsletters) may be downloaded and viewed outside of the website, so you may need to include one or both of these statements. You can read more information here.
Review of Terms
- Alt text: text that is used as a replacement for the image when it is not available (e.g. when a visitor is using a screen reader or when the site is being scanned by Google). The alt text should include any text that is in the image.
- Accessibility: a diverse variety of visitors can access the content
- Website-based content: content that visitors can read directly on a website (as opposed to independent downloadable files) and printed, emailed, or shared on social media
- Box: OSU’s file storage and sharing system
- Tags: labels applied to content to provide context and clues to meaning. Various platforms can use the contextual information tags provide to display or use the content in ways that make sense.
- Make sure content you enter in the site has been reviewed and evaluated for quality and compliance with Extension’s digital strategy.
- It is required that Extension’s web content be accessible to people with disabilities.
- Box is often a good place to store files, especially if they need to be versioned or password-protected. You can create links to them from the Extension website.
- Only enter content (including text, documents, and images) that you own or have permission to use.